Glossary of Terms

Glossary of Terms 2017-10-20T09:44:20+00:00

Commonly referenced medical terms:

Oculocutaneous albinism is a group of conditions that affect coloring (pigmentation) of the skin, hair, and eyes. Affected individuals typically have very fair skin and white or light-colored hair.
Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Signs and symptoms vary among people. Often, symptoms include poor coordination, stiff muscles, weak muscles, and tremors. There may be problems with sensation, vision, hearing, swallowing, and speaking.
Cortical visual impairment is a form of visual impairment that is caused by trauma to the brain, rather than an eye problem. Some people have both CVI and a form of ocular visual impairment.
Jaundice is a condition that makes a newborn’s skin and the white part of the eyes look yellow. It happens because there is too much bilirubin in the baby’s blood (hyperbilirubinemia). Bilirubin is a substance that is made when the body breaks down old red blood cells.
Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia, specifically involving the brain; when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia. There are four categories of cerebral hypoxia; they are, in order of severity: diffuse cerebral hypoxia, focal cerebral ischemia, cerebral infarction, and global cerebral ischemia.
Intraventricular hemorrhage or IVH is a bleeding into the brain’sventricular system, where the cerebrospinal fluid is produced and circulates through towards the subarachnoid space.
Leber’s congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a rare inherited eye disease that appears at birth or in the first few months of life.
Infants born at low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds) and especially very low birth weight (less than 1,500 grams or 3.25 pounds) are more likely than infants of normal birth weight to die in the first year of life and to experience long-range physical and developmental health problems.
A neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU), also known as an intensive care nursery (ICN), is an intensive-care unit specializing in the care of ill or premature newborn infants.
Injury to a baby caused by being shaken violently and repeatedly.
Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is a medical condition arising from the underdevelopment of the optic nerve(s). This condition is the most common congenital optic nerve anomaly.
Periventricular leukomalacia is a form of white-matter brain injury, characterized by the necrosis of white matter near the lateral ventricles. It can affect newborns and fetuses; premature infants are at the greatest risk of the disorder.
Premature (also known as preterm) birth refers to when a baby is born too early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Important growth and development occur throughout pregnancy-especially in the final months and weeks.
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease that affects immature vasculature in the eyes of premature babies. It can be mild with no visual defects, or it may become aggressive with new blood vessel formation (neovascularization) and progress to retinal detachment and blindness.
A vertically transmitted infection is an infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or in rare cases, parasites transmitted directly from the mother to an embryo, fetus, or baby during pregnancy or childbirth. It can occur when the mother gets an infection as an intercurrent disease in pregnancy.

Commonly referenced educational terms:

American Printing House for the Blind

Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialist
Early Intervention Visual Impairment Specialist
Educational Service District.

There are nine ESDs across Washington State – find your region’s ESD.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Federal Special Education Law)
Independent Educational Evaluation
Individualized Education Program
Individual Family Service Plan
Family Resources Coordinator (FRC) is a person who assists a family in gaining access to early intervention services for their eligible child and other resources as identified in the Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP).
Teacher of the Deaf
Teacher of the Visually Impaired